Water Purification Process

Introduction:

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The process of removing undesirable contaminants, suspended impurities, undesirable particulate matter etc. from the contaminated water is termed as water purification. Water purification is to be done to fit the water for all purposes. The water is not only used for drinking purpose but also used for other requirements of medical, pharmacological and for many industrial applications. Several physical, biological, chemical processes are used for the purpose of water purification. This process reduces the concentration of the unwanted particulate matter that includes bacteria, parasites, viruses, fungi, algae etc. Many dissolved particles that come from the rain water contact with the contaminated surfaces.

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General boiling process i.e. distillation removes the bacteria in water, the house hold water that is carbon based, will remove the contaminants upto certain level where that water does not completely fit for usage. There are several techniques used to purify the water.

Different processes:

  • Physical processes:

Filtration:

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It is a common operation that is used to separate solids from liquids. A filtrate medium as filter paper is used for this process through which the fluid is passed where that filters act as an interposing medium. It is specially used for water treatment and sewage treatment.

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  • Sedimentation: It is a tendency of the particles in the suspension to settle out of the fluids in which they come to rest against a container. This is resulted due to their motion in a fluid as response to the forces (gravity, centrifugal, acceleration etc.) against them. This process uses a slow flow basin where the particles settle at the bottom of the container leaving pure water at the top.

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  • Distillation: It is a process of separating the particulate substances from the liquid mixture by a selective process of vaporization or condensation. In industries distillation is a unit process. It is a physical process of water purification but not chemical process. It is a batch process of water purification where more volumes are purified with simple process repetition.

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  • Biological processes:

Sand filters:

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Sand filtration is a process of water purification where water is passed through sand which contains activated carbon. This offers an ease for a slucide free water.

  • Biological active carbon

-Lava Filters:

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These are sand filters where lava filters will adhere the small pieces of floating sediments and carbon before the carbon is removed.

-Membranous Filters:

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Some of the filtration methods use polymer membranes that prevent the sediment materials in water to stay back and allow pure water to pass through them.

  • Chemical processes:

Flocculation:

It is a process the suspended colloids in the water are tending to flocs (similar to cakes) and these are precipitated in the later stages. It is used to make the cloudy and turbid water clear. It is featured with the addition of mineral particles in the water that soaks and attracts the particles and then passes the water for filtration. The flocculation agents are iron hydroxide, aluminum hydroxide and Poly DADMAC.

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  • Chlorination:It is a process of addition of Chlorine and hypo chlorite to water is known as chlorination. This process of purification is used to kill the bacteria and other microbes that are present in tap water. However chlorine is toxic so much chlorination may cause health hazards.

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  • Electromagnetic radiation:

Ultra violet light:

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UV rays can be used to disinfect the clear water by the destruction of cysts that do not leave any residues. These rays cannot penetrate through cloudy water and cannot dispose the infecting agents. Hydrogen peroxide and O3 are used as disinfesting agents to purify the water on effective cyst deactivation.

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