Motors and their Types

Motor is an electro mechanical or mechanical device that is used to converts the energy into motion. It converts the energy in the form of hydraulic, pneumatic or electrical into the linear motion or rotational motion. Then the converted energy must be send to the shaft for an output or to the other power transmission apparatuses, where it delivers useful exertion.

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Electric motors

Electric motor is a machine which converts the electrical energy into the mechanical motion. An electric motor is used to impel small fishing boats which are known as trolling motors. The electric motors are divided into two types they are

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AC Motors and DC motor

Types of motors

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AC motor, DC motor, Air motor, gear motor, hydraulic motor, linear motor, servo motor, stepper motor, rocket motor, trolling motor, outboard motor, synchronous motor, Induction motor, Brushed DC motor, Brushless DC motor and starter motor.

AC Motors:

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AC motor is an electro mechanical device used to produce motion. The AC motor is driven by using the alternative current to produce a rotational motion. The rotational motion provides a mechanical work to drive the other rotating machine such as pumps and other machines. At the time of manufacturing it includes the specifications like type of the motor either synchronous or induction. But mostly they use induction motor type, rated output speed, power, torque, types of enclose and also mounting. For a range of powers the frame sizes are available to comfort interchangeability. Enclosures can ranges from open designs to eruption proof, non-purifying designs and totally enclosed fan cooled are being common. The level of protection and cooling are prescribe and rated by the international system. The AC motors are mainly used in the fans, pumps compressors, and many others. The size of the motor ranges from sub fractional to nearly 20,000 horse power sized machine units. Metric sized units are also available.

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DC Motors:

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The DC motors are also electro mechanical devices used to produce motion. The DC motor is driven by using the direct current to produce a rotational motion. The rotational motion provides a work to drive the other rotating machine, such as hoists and other machines by varying the speeds. Proper arrangement of the locomotives is set; this is to produce a slow speed torque and making the traction motors suitable for the process. At the time of manufacturing it includes the specifications like type of the motor, brushed or brushless, construction; the motor like wound rotor or permanent magnet, output speeds, power, torque etc.

For a range of powers various frame sizes are available to comfort interchangeability. Enclosures can ranges from open designs to eruption proof, non-purifying designs. In the DC motor the level of protection and cooling are prescribe and rated by the international system. The DC motors are mainly used in the consumer good, toys and in the car manufactures. Where the manufactures use them heavily and they are also used as conveyers, fork lifts, elevators, constants torque loads or normal loads.

Air motors:

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The air motors are mechanical devices, which are power driven by the air pressure to produce a rotational motion. The obtained motion provides a rotational work to drive the other rotating machines generally take-up real’s and outfits. In the time of manufacturing, it includes the specifications like speed, torque, type of the motor, and power rating etc. The mounting configuration is also a key factor, since the motor needs to be directly mounted on the equipment. Air motors are used in some places wherever a source of compressed air is present.  Irrespective with the speed, a steady torque is needed. The air motors are mainly used in the explosive atmosphere and they are considered as naturally safe.

Gear Motors:

The Gear motors are also electro mechanical devices used to produce a rotational motion.

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The gear motor is driven by using the direct current or an alternative current to produce a rotational motion. The obtained motion is further processed to provide a rotational work and is stepped down from side to side. A central gear head is used to drive another rotating machine like packing machines and conveyors. At the time of manufacturing it includes the specifications like type of motor such as alternating current or direct current, torque, speed, type of gear, gearing ratio, configuration of the shaft and power rating. The gear motor requires a motor and speed reducer. They are not available in large sizes but available in small HP sizes.

Hydraulic motors:

The hydraulic motors are mechanical devices used to produce rotational motion.

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The rotational motion is used to drive the other rotating elements, such as to control the wheels of heavy machinery equipment. At the time of manufacturing it includes the specifications like type of motor used, torque, rated speed, power rating, flange mounted , flange configuration, port configuration and mounted configuration.  Mainly the hydraulic motors are used in the construction machineries in which state rotary notions are required.

Linear Motor:

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The linear motors are an electro mechanical device, which is driven by a direct current or alternative current to produce linear motion instead of rotational motion. The linear motion applications are used in the air cylinders where large accuracy and positional reaction are needed. The motion can be varied from stroke to stroke. At the time of manufacturing it includes the specifications like type of the motor, continuous forces and peak forces, rated velocity, forcer lengths, acceleration, repeatability, forcer accuracy and resolution for the linear stepped motors. Mainly the linear motors are used in the assembly machines, packing machines, material handling equipment’s, medical equipment’s etc.

Servo motors:

The servo motors are an electro mechanical device, that is driven by a direct current or alternative current is used to produce rotational motion and also setting.

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To control the radial positions the feedback loop are used to rotate the motor with respect to the stator. At the time of manufacturing it includes the specifications like type of the motor, IP rating, feedback type and power rating.in positioning applications the servomotors are used where smooth and manageable motion is paramount. The servo motors are used in the packing industries, industrial robot, feeding system can be controlled by using the servo motor.

Stepper motor:

The stepper motors are an electro mechanical device, which is driven by an alternative current to produce rotational motion and also setting.

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In the stepper motor there is no arrangement of feedback loop. To achieve a position control by turning the motor a separate number of steps are to be followed, they are particular to motion control application. At the time of manufacturing it includes the specifications like type of the motor, step angle, torque rating, number of phases, rated speed and IP ratings. The stepper motor is used in the positioning applications, where the position holding is important in printers, packing machines etc.

Rocket Motors:

The rocket motors are the jet engines. Generally the jet engine uses the discharged combustion energy through the nozzle to the create thrust.

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At the time of manufacturing it includes the specifications like type of the fuel, and thrust supplies. In spacecraft’s and missiles rocket engines are used, but they have been applied to the land based vehicles also.

Trolling Motors:

The trolling motors are an electro mechanical device, which is driven by a direct current and is used to drive minor fishing boats at low speeds.

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At the time of manufacturing it includes the specifications like power requirement, mounting location and also style.

Outboard Motors

The outboard motors are gasoline fuel engines which are used to drive boats.

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At the time of manufacturing it includes the specifications like configuration of a power engine and portability for the small outboard engines.

Synchronous motor:

The synchronous motor is an AC motor which is be in a steady state. The shaft rotation is synchronized to the frequency of the current supply.

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The rotation period must be equal to the integral number of AC cycles. The synchronous motor consists of electromagnets present on the stator of the motor. The electromagnets present on the stator create a magnetic field which creates the oscillations with respect to the time of the current line. The rotor must act as permanent magnet. Due to the presence of the stator field or the electromagnet turns in to step with the fields at the same rate, and the second synchronized rotating offers magnetic field of any type AC motor.

Induction motor

Induction motor is also an AC motor. The electric current in the rotor needs to produce a torque.

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The torque is gained by the electromagnetic induction from magnetic field of the stator twisting. The induction motor does not require any mechanical replacement, self or separate excitation for all. The energy from the parts is transferred from stator to the rotor. The induction motor can be squirrel cage type or wound type.

Brushed DC motor

The brushed DC motor is inside the electric motor and it designed to run from the DC power source.

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To drive the mechanical loads brushed motors are the main application of the electric power. DC drives the system to operate motors in the industrial and commercial buildings. By changing the operating voltage the Brushed DC motors speed is varied or there is a change in the magnetic field strength. The torque and the speed features are varied which depend upon the power supply field connection for providing the stable speeds to the mechanical loads. The brushed motors are used in the cranes, steel rolling mills, paper machines etc.

Brushless DC motor

Brushless DC motor is also synchronous motor that is driven by a DC source through an integrated switching power supply.

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The motor delivers an AC electrical motion to drive the motor. It is driven by direct current, and also in the Brushless DC motor instead of mechanical commutation system electronically measured commutation system based on brushes.

Starter motor

Internal combustion of the vehicle is started by using the starter motor

Some more types of motors are:

  • Molecular motor
  • Synthetic molecular motor
  • Internal fan cooled electrical motor
  • Actuator
  • Nanomotor
  • electro static motor

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