Materials Science – Fundamentals and Structure

What is materials science?

Interdisciplinary field of this materials science is also known as the materials science & engineering which essentially involves discovery as well as design of the new materials. However, there is importance on the solids as well. Materials science incorporates the elements of not only physics but also engineering & chemistry. Hence, it is said to be the sub – field of the above stated related fields.

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Origins of materials science

As far as the intellectual origins of the materials science are in question, Enlightenment is stated to be the base of it. However, with time researchers started to use the analytical thinking from physics, chemistry & engineering in order to understand the ancient or the phenomenological observations both in mineralogy & metallurgy.

Therefore, materials science can be stated to be a syncretic discipline which hybridizes metallurgy, chemistry, solid – state physics & ceramics. This is the reason that it is known as the best & the 1st example for a new academic discipline which has emerged due to fusion & not via fission.

Fundamentals of materials science

Material is basically defined to be the substance which is intended to also be used for a few applications. Then there are those materials which are to be found around us & which can be found in buildings or spacecraft or other things similar to it. In addition to this, materials can in a general sense be divided in to 2 classes which are crystalline & non – crystalline. As for the best examples for the materials then it is metals, polymers, semiconductors & the ceramics. On the other hand, the advanced materials which are being developed on a day to day basis are inclusive of the nanomaterials & the biomaterials.

Structure in materials science

Structure plays an important role as it is stated to be one of the most vital components of the materials science’s fields. Generally, materials science looks in to the structure of the materials that too from the atomic scale to that of the macro scale. Hence, characterization is the method that is used to examine a material’s structure & this is the method which the scientists use when structure is in question. Apart from the above stated methods, the other methods are inclusive of the following stated methods like that of the – diffraction with X – rays / electrons / neutrons / diverse forms of spectroscopy as well as chemical analysis namely the Raman spectroscopy / energy – dispersive spectroscopy or the EDS / chromatography / thermal analysis & the electron microscope analysis among others.

What are the classes of materials?

The list of the classes of materials have been listed below, you can have a look at it – (1) ionic crystals (2) covalent crystals (3) metals (4) intermetallics (5) semiconductors (6) polymers (7) composite materials & the (8) vitreous materials.

Properties of materials

The properties of materials are – mechanical / chemical / electrical / thermal / optical & the magnetic properties.

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