Grinding wheels

Principle: Grinding wheel is a device used to perform material removal and cutting it occurs at the time of weak bonding matrix.

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Components:  Abrasives, Bond, pore.

Working Principle of Grinding Wheel:

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Hard grain materials are arranged outside the grinding wheel. Those grains are known as abrasives by using them; metal removal from the work piece is done to obtain a shape. Depends upon the abrasive type grinding wheel must be identified. Grinding wheel is arranged to the machine for progression. Regulator arrangement is provided for increase and decrease of the speeds. Based on the work piece type the grinding wheel acceleration is changed for the metal removal.

Specification of grinding wheel

  • Geometrical specifications
  • Compositional Specifications

Coding of grinding wheels

For grinding wheel coding given by the Indian standards are IS: 551-1954.It provides information about the grain size, abrasive type, grade, structure type and bond type.

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C = Name of abrasive

L = Grade

V= Bond Type

A = Abrasive type symbol

Numbers represents grain size, structure and Manufacturer symbol

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Types of grinding wheels

  • Straight grinding wheels
  • Cylindrical grinding wheels
  • Tapered grinding wheel
  • Straight cup
  • Dish Cup
  • Saucer grinding wheel
  • Diamond grinding wheel
  • Mounted Grinding wheel
  • Cut off grinding wheel

Straight grinding wheel:

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Straight grinding wheel is the most common type of wheel that is used in the bench grinding machines. By using this we can produce concave shapes surfaces. These are mainly used in surface grinding, centre-less grinding and cylindrical grinding operations.

Cylindrical grinding wheels

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It is a hollow type cylinder used for grinding process. They are very large in width. The main purpose of the cylindrical grinding wheel is to fabricate flat surfaces; by using both the surfaces grinding can be done.

Tapered grinding wheel

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Tapered surface is provided to the grinding wheel. In contrast with the straight grinding arrangement wheel is strong in the tapered grinding wheel. The main aim of the tapered grinding wheel is to produce gear teeth’s and threads.

Straight cup grinding wheels

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Straight cup is used instead of cup wheels and cutter grinders. By using Straight cup we can perform radial grinding on the work pieces.

Dish Cup grinding wheels

Dish cup grinding wheels are used in jig grinding and cutter grinders’ .Thickness is present in the grinding wheel that which allows for cracks and slots.

Saucer grinding wheel

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Saucer grinding wheels are used in the twist drills and milling cutters

Diamond grinding wheel

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To the wheel periphery industrial diamonds are arranged. They are mainly used for the removal of the hard materials like gem stones, concrete, carbides etc.,

Mounted Grinding Wheels:

For high speed process of machining mounted point grinding wheels are used in the die industries. Machining of hard steels is also done by using the mounted point grinding wheels.

Cut off grinding wheel

Cut off grinding wheels is self- sharpening wheels, trimming and quick removal of material. Mainly they are used in the construction industries for cutting of reinforcement bars.

Abrasives

Abrasive materials are used in the grinding wheels for polishing, lapping, grinding, pressure blasting, honing process. Depends on the metal removal rate abrasive types are selected.

Working principle of abrasive particles

Large amount of abrasive particles are arranged on the grinding wheel each abrasive acts as a single point cutting tool. According to the arrangement of abrasive particles the metal removal takes place.

Materials used for abrasive particles

  • For hard metals Diamond is used
  • For non- ferrous metals silicon carbide is used
  • Aluminium oxide is the common material used as an abrasive particle
  • Machining of wood garnet is used
  • For pressure blasting operation glass is used

Size of the Abrasive Particles

8 to 24 grit size is for rough type materials

30 to 60 grit size is for Medium type materials

70 to 180 grit size is for fine type materials

220 to 1200 grit size is for very fine type materials

Abrasive Types

Based on the chemical composition, Shapes, Heat treatment, Surface treatment abrasives are manufactured.

Applications of grinding wheel

  • Grinding wheel are used for the material removal and for smoothing of the surface
  • It gives high dimensional accuracy and good surface finish
  • By using grinding wheel both hard and smooth materials process are done
  • High surface finish is available
  • Cylindrical objects are also performed by using the grinding wheel

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