Casting Defects and Applications

Defects:

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Defects in the casting process can be found due to the pattern and molding box equipment, cores, gating system, molding sand or molten metal. Some common defects are:

  • Mold shift:

When the top and bottom parts of the casting are mismatched this defect is occurs generally at the parting line of the casting.

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Casting Defects -1

  • Swell:

Swell is an enlargement to the mold cavity that is caused by the molten metal pressure, finally results in   the localized and generalized enlargement of the casting.

  • Fins and flash:

These are thin projections to the metal that are not intended as a part of casting. This defect generally occurs at the parting line of the mold.

  • Sand wash:

Sand wash occurs at the gates as rough lumps over the casting surface.

  • Shrinkage:

Shrinkage is a crack or breakage that occurs in a casting, on the work piece surface. This problem is faced due to un equal contraction in the process of metal contraction.

Casting Defects -2

  • Hot tear:
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Metal irregular solidification results in this casting defect that is an internal or external ragged discontinuity in the casting of the metals.

Casting Defects -3

  • Sand blow (blow hole):

Casting Defects -5

This is a depression over the work piece surface while casting due to the irregular molten metal filling into the mold.

  • Slag holes (honey combing):

Slag holes are generally seen on the upper surface of the work piece that is mostly occurred at the surface of the casting.

  • Scabs:

These are the patches that are left over the work piece surface after removal of the casting mold.

  • Cold shut and misruns:

Cols shut and misruns are caused in the casting process due to the incomplete filling of the molten insufficient metal or material.

Casting Defects -4

  • Run outs and bust outs:

These occur unexpectedly in the process of casting that permits metal drainage from the cavity. This results in incomplete formation of the required casting object.

Applications:

Transport sector equipment and heavy machinery are pre-dominant consumers of these castings:

  • In transportation shipping, railways, aerospace vehicles and automobile vehicles etc., in all these sectors most of the major components are manufactured by casting process.
  • In heavy equipment like construction and mining, farming will use casting as their basic process in manufacturing.
  • Machine tools that are used in manufacturing processes as forging, machining, plastic molding, forming are manufactured by casting.
  • Plant machinery as chemical, petroleum, paper, sugar, thermal plants; opts this casting process as it is an easy way and is inexpensive when compared to other processes.
  • Defense vehicles, munitions, storage and other supportive equipment are the applications of casting.
  • Electrical Machines as generators, motors, pumps, compressors are manufactured by this manufacturing process.
  • Pipes, joints, valves and other fittings in municipal castings are applications of castings.
  • House hold appliances that are related to kitchen, gardening, furnishing and fitting equipment come under the applications of this process.
  • Idols, sculptors, lamp stands, other decorative items are prepared by the mold materials using casting.

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