Basic machining tools

Machine tool materials vary with the machine sizes mounted on the work bench for production. In many industries the machine sizes are of nearly several hundred tones.

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Machines are classified in to several types they are:

  • Lathe machine
  • Boring mills
  • Drilling machine
  • Grinding machine
  • Milling machine
  • Shaper machine and Planer machine
  • Power saws
  • Presses
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Lathe machine

Lathe machine is a basic machine when compared to other machines it is considered to be an important tool. The lathe machine is manufactured by using all the fundamental machine elements.

 

The lathe machine is used to perform various types of operation such as, turning operations drilling operation, facing operating etc. The turning and the boring operation are performed with the help of single point cutting tool.

Lathe machine

During the turning operations the excess of metal is removed from the work piece in the form of chip. On the external diameter of the work piece material the operations performed are facing, tapers shapes, straight shapes, screw threads, grooves on the cylindrical parts. By using lathe machine one can also perform the internal operations like boring, drilling, counter boring, reaming, threading, etc. The reaming operations are done with the help of the single point cutting tool.

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Boring mills

Boring mills

By using the boring mills one can perform the operations like enlarging the holes and finishing a hole that has been drilled or cored. Compared to the drilled operation bored machine performs with high accuracy, roundness, eccentricity and parallelism. With the help of the single point cutting tool the bore operation is done on the work piece material. Boring mills are circular horizontal table which rotates along the vertical axis. They are specially design for the turning and the boring operation of parts. They are too large to be mounted on the lathe machine.

Drilling machine

 

Drilling machine

Drilling machines are also knows as drill presses. They are used to punch the holes on the metal sheets with the help of the twist drill. They perform different types of operations like boring, counter boring, counter sinking, and internal thread tapping by using the tapping parts.

Grinding machine

To the grinding machine, the grinding wheels are attached, and to the outer surface of the wheel contain abrasive particles. When the work piece material comes into contact with the wheel there is removal of the material in the form of chip. Grinding operations give an accurate result of the basic machining process.

Grinding machine

Milling machine

Milling machine consists of a rotating cutting tool, which must act as a milling cutter. Cutters vary in shape and sizes and they are used for the variety of milling operations. Milling machines are used to perform grooves, flat surfaces, inclined surfaces, slots etc.

Milling machine

Planer machine and Shaper machine

The planer and shaper machines are used to perform machining process like slots, flat surfaces, angular surfaces, grooves and all these functions are done with the help of single point cutting tool.

Planer machines are used to perform the planning operation on the lengthier work piece materials. By using the planner machine they work up to 50 feet long. The work piece must be placed on the planer table as it will moves in the to and fro motion for the removal of the chip from the work piece material.

Planer machine

Shaper machine is also used to perform the above operations. The cutting stroke of the shaper is nearly 36inches and it can machine a part upto 36 inches long. The cutting tool of the shaper must oscillate. During the forward stroke the metal removal must take place and comes back very fast during the return stroke.

Shaper machine

Power saws

Power saws are divided into three types they are

  • Power hack saws
  • Band saws
  • Circular disk saws

Particularly vertical saws are used to perform the cutting shapes operations in the metal plates, external and internal counters and also angular cuts.

Presses

The presses operations are performed for forming, shearing, drawing, bending, blanking, upsetting, squeezing, hammering and coining. With the help movable ram, pressure can be applied against a base or anvil. The ram must be powered by mechanical links, gravity or hydraulic system.

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